2G & 3G Networks

Cellular IoT (CIoT) – Mobile IoT using NB-IoT and LTE-M

Today, mobile networks are not limited to just mobile phones for consumers and businesses, but they also provide connectivity for machine-to-machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. IoT, or the Internet of Things, has been around for a long time, and it is a system of devices connected to the internet to communicate with …

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FDD vs TDD: What are FDD and TDD in mobile networks?

FDD and TDD are two fundamental concepts in mobile communications and other telecom systems. Together they represent the duplexing schemes in mobile networks that deal with two-way communication. FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) is a technique in mobile networks that uses separate frequency bands for uplink and downlink communication; TDD (Time Division Duplex) is a technique …

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EDGE 2G or 3G: Is EDGE in GSM a 2G or 3G technology?

EDGE is a network enhancement in second-generation (2G) GSM networks and is represented by an E symbol on cell phones. It is a successor of the GPRS enhancement that introduced the packet-switched mobile internet in GSM networks. EDGE or Enhanced Data for Global Evolution is a 2G technology introduced in GSM networks to increase the …

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4G vs GPRS: What is the difference between 4G LTE and GPRS?

4G and GPRS represent two different generations of mobile networks, and our mobile phones can access both to connect to the cellular network. However, while both 4G LTE and GPRS enable packet-switched mobile data, 4G is one of the latest cellular technologies, and GPRS is one of the earliest technologies. 4G is the fourth generation …

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GPS vs GPRS vs GSM: How is GPS different from GPRS and GSM?

GPS is an entirely different technology compared to GPRS and GSM. GPS is used for satellite navigation, whereas GPRS and GSM are mobile communications technologies. However, since these acronyms sound a bit similar, it is possible to get confused between them. GPRS or General Packet Radio Service is a cellular technology enhancement in 2G GSM …

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HSCSD and GPRS: GPRS vs High-Speed Circuit Switched Data

High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) are network enhancements made to the second-generation (2G) GSM networks. The HSCSD technology is now obsolete; however, GPRS is still around and can be seen on mobile phones as the “G” symbol when 2G GSM networks serve a phone. HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data) was …

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3G UMTS networks: What is UMTS and why does it use WCDMA?

The third generation of mobile networks, also referred to as 3G, is primarily enabled by two cellular technologies: UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and CDMA2000 (Code Division Multiple Access Year 2000). UMTS is the 3G migration path used by the most widely deployed second-generation (2G) technology, GSM. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) is a third-generation …

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2G GSM: What is a GSM network and how does GSM work?

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications, and it is one of the most widely deployed second-generation (2G) cellular technologies globally. GSM was initially introduced in 1991 in Europe before it made its way to the rest of the world. GSM or Global System for Mobile Communications is a second-generation (2G) digital technology standard …

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