2G & 3G Networks

UMTS: What is a 3G UMTS network?

While many of us mostly think about 4G and 5G as the key mobile technologies in recent times, the third-generation (3G) cellular technologies arguably were game-changers in the mobile telecom industry. Before 3G, the perception of mobile phones was primarily voice, text and a limited amount of web browsing. With 3G, video streaming on a …

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What is a GSM network and how does it work?

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications and it is the most widely deployed standard for the second generation of mobile networks or 2G. GSM network uses a combination of two access techniques Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The combination of FDMA and TDMA allows a mobile operator …

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What is the difference between GPRS and EDGE?

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) are two packet-based mobile data technologies that were introduced in second-generation GSM networks. GPRS could provide peak download speeds of up to 171.2 kbps. EDGE followed GPRS and increased the maximum download speed to 384 kbps. When the original GSM (Global System for …

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What is GPRS in GSM?

GPRS is a mobile network enhancement that was introduced as the first packet-switched mobile data technology in the GSM networks. The introduction of GPRS allowed mobile operators to offer efficient mobile data services to their customers. The word ‘efficient’ is important here because GSM networks already had the capability to offer very limited data services …

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GSM vs. CDMA: What’s the difference between CDMA and GSM?

For people in the telecom industry, concepts like FDMA, TDMA and CDMA are fairly well-understood as these are the techniques used by telecom networks for enabling multiple access. Multiple access is the capability that allows multiple people to access the mobile network simultaneously. Therefore, the whole CDMA vs GSM discussion is misleading because the comparison …

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What is the difference between HSPA and LTE?

In mobile communications, there are a little too many technologies and terminologies. Even though their purpose is to consistently enhance and evolve the mobile networks, they can also sometimes lead to confusion. If you are reading this article then you are probably already familiar with the terms HSPA and LTE. These terminologies represent two very …

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What frequency does GSM use?

The frequency spectrum is one of the most fundamental resources of a mobile network operator (MNO). It is the means of allowing mobile operators to transmit and receive signals in any geographical location so that their customers can get access to mobile services. The spectrum defines the frequency bands allocated to mobile operators within a …

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What frequency was used by IS-95 (cdmaONE)?

The IS-95 mobile networks, also known as cdmaONE systems, introduced the first CDMA based mobile networks in the mid-1990s. IS-95 stands for Interim Standard 1995, and it was a second-generation mobile network technology. The IS-95 standard has two variants IS-95 A and IS-95 B, which later evolved to the third generation mobile networks CDMA2000. For …

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