Mobile Wireless

Mobile Network Operator vs Mobile Virtual Network Operator

Mobile Network Operators (MNO) and Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) are companies that provide mobile cellular services to consumer and business customers. Mobile cellular services primarily include voice calls, text messages (SMS – Short Message Service) and mobile internet. MNOs and MVNOs are different from each other and use different approaches to offer value to …

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Base Station Subsystem vs Network Switching Subsystem in GSM

BSS and NSS in GSM networks are subsystems that consist of various network components to support radio and core network functions. BSS deals with the mobile radio network whereas NSS deals with the mobile core network. BSS in GSM networks refers to Base Station Subsystem which is essentially the radio access part of a GSM …

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Mobile data speed with 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G cellular networks

In 2022, the distinction between fixed broadband and mobile broadband can be a bit blurry because both network technologies are capable of addressing the internet needs of customers. With the launch of 5G New Radio (NR) technology in 2019 in some parts of the world, mobile phones and routers can already achieve an average download …

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Roaming and international calls, SMS and mobile data

When we use cellular services through our mobile phones in other countries or when we try to contact someone in other countries, then the roaming and international services become applicable. If you travel internationally or contact people abroad through your mobile phone, it is important to understand the concept of roaming and international calls, text …

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Cell sites and cell towers in a mobile cellular network

We use our mobile phones every day, and we can connect to the cellular network for phone calls, text messages and mobile data no matter where we go. While the network coverage and quality depend on which mobile operator we are using, the connectivity is available irrespective of our location and mobility. This is because …

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What are digital and analog mobile networks?

As a mobile phone user, you may occasionally come across situations where you, for whatever reason, need to know the difference between digital and analogue (or analog) mobile networks. This situation can be a more frequent occurrence if you are an electrical, electronics, or telecommunications engineering student. While you may find tens if not hundreds …

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What is a frequency spectrum in mobile communications?

We see mobile operators engaged in discussions around the frequency spectrum every few years. But, do you sometimes wonder what they are talking about and, more importantly, why they are talking about it? Regulatory authorities such as Ofcom in the UK are also involved in these discussions. If you follow UK technology news, you may …

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Small cells: What are microcells, femtocells and picocells?

Femtocells, picocells and microcells are types of small cells that complement the primary cellular coverage provided by the macrocells within a mobile network. The macrocells are the largest cells in mobile communications that cover tens of kilometres, whereas femtocells are the smallest cells. Femtocells, picocells and microcells are small cells that allow a mobile operator …

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