Telecom Concepts

What is the difference between FDD And TDD In Telecoms?

In mobile communications, terminologies like FDD and TDD have existed from the beginning, and they are fundamental to the network design of any cellular technology. This post looks at the basic concept of FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex) and their benefits for mobile operators. FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) is a technique …

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Is VoLTE (Voice over LTE) in 4G based on VoIP technology?

When mobile networks started their journey, voice calls were the bread and butter for mobile operators. Back then, the only way to deliver voice calls was through dedicated circuits or connections that required circuit-switched technology. As the digital era of mobile communications started in the early 1990s with GSM and D-AMPS networks, the circuit-switched capability …

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What is the difference between GPRS and GPS?

GPRS and GPS are two completely different things, and comparing them is like comparing apples and oranges. However, since both of these terminologies sound similar and our smartphones can have both, the difference between these two technologies is worth clarifying explicitly. In straightforward terms, GPS is used for navigation and uses signals from satellites orbiting …

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Difference between MU-MIMO and SU-MIMO in mobile networks

Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO) and Single-User MIMO (SU-MIMO) are two antenna technologies used in modern wireless networks, including 4G and 5G mobile networks. While both MU-MIMO and SU-MIMO are part of the overall Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology, there are key differences between the two that we will cover in this post. MU-MIMO uses radio …

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Is spatial multiplexing different from spatial diversity?

Spatial multiplexing and spatial diversity are two radio communication techniques used in modern antenna systems in 4G LTE and 5G NR networks. Both these techniques play essential but separate roles in the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna systems. Spatial diversity is a technique in MIMO that reduces signal fading by sending multiple copies of …

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What is the difference between MIMO and carrier aggregation?

Modern cellular networks, including 4G LTE and 5G NR, use a range of capabilities to improve data rates for mobile users. MIMO and carrier aggregation are two such capabilities that enhance the overall network capacity, which results in higher data rates. MIMO-Multiple Input Multiple Output improves data rates through smart antenna technology, whereas carrier aggregation …

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Difference between MIMO and Spatial Multiplexing

MIMO and spatial multiplexing are two inter-related concepts often used interchangeably in mobile communications. MIMO or Multiple Input Multiple Output is an antenna technology first introduced in the 3G UMTS networks as part of HSPA enhancement. Modern mobile networks, including both 4G LTE and 5G NR, use different variants of MIMO technology to improve signal …

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