Radio access techniques

MIMO in LTE: What is Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output in 4G?

The MIMO antenna technology has been a critical part of 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) networks. 4G networks have seen multiple enhancements to the MIMO configuration to improve data rates and signal quality. MIMO or Multiple Input Multiple Output is an antenna technology in 4G LTE that uses multiple antenna elements at the transmitter and …

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What is carrier aggregation in 4G LTE Advanced networks?

4G LTE networks use various technologies to increase the download and upload speeds for our mobile phones. Carrier Aggregation or CA is one of the most fundamental techniques used in 4G networks. Carrier Aggregation was initially introduced in LTE-Advanced networks, and today it is part of LTE-Advanced, LTE-Advanced Pro and 5G New Radio (NR) networks. …

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Frequency Calculator: Calculating frequency of radio waves

Radio Frequency or RF is one of the most fundamental concepts in mobile communications. Our mobile phones communicate with the mobile network using radio waves that are also called RF waves. These radio waves are electromagnetic radiations that travel through the air at specific frequencies. The frequency of a radio wave is calculated by dividing …

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Wavelength Calculator: Calculating wavelength of radio waves

Mobile networks employ radio waves (RF waves) for all communication between the mobile network base station and the cell phone. The radio waves travel through the air at particular radio frequencies, and as the frequency of a radio wave goes up, the length of the wave goes down. It means lower frequencies have bigger wavelengths …

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What modulation technique is used in 4G LTE networks?

4G LTE networks use the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access technique (OFDMA) for the air interface to enable wireless connectivity between the cell phone and the base station. OFDMA uses the multicarrier modulation scheme (MCM), which involves a large number of sub-carriers to transmit data by breaking it down into smaller chunks and then transmitting …

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Difference between OFDM, OFDMA and SC-FDMA in 4G LTE

OFDM, OFDMA and SC-FDMA are technologies that enable radio communication between a mobile phone and the 4G LTE mobile network. OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, OFDMA stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access, and SC-FDMA stands for Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access. OFDM is the primary transmission scheme in 4G LTE networks …

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Half-duplex and full-duplex FDD And TDD in 4G LTE and 5G NR

Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) are among the most fundamental concepts in all mobile networks, including 4G LTE and 5G NR. Effective use of FDD and TDD in full-duplex and half-duplex modes ensures successful two-way communication. 4G LTE and 5G NR can use both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time …

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GSM frequency bands: What frequencies do GSM networks use?

Frequency bands are the most fundamental part of the radio network for any cellular technology. When second-generation (2G) GSM networks started, they were initially limited to the 900 MHz frequency band, but they have expanded and can operate in various frequency bands. GSM networks use multiple frequency bands, including 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 850 MHz …

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What is a frequency spectrum in mobile communications?

We see mobile operators engaged in discussions around the frequency spectrum every few years. But, do you sometimes wonder what they are talking about and, more importantly, why they are talking about it? Regulatory authorities such as Ofcom in the UK are also involved in these discussions. If you follow UK technology news, you may …

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Frequencies used by Interim Standard 95 (IS-95 or cdmaOne)

The IS-95 mobile networks, also known as cdmaOne systems, introduced the first CDMA based mobile networks in the mid-1990s. IS-95 stands for Interim Standard 1995, and it was a second-generation mobile network technology. Interim Standard 95 (IS-95 or cdmaOne) uses two frequency bands: 824 to 894 MHz and 1850 to 1990 MHz. In the first …

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