Cellular technologies

3G UMTS networks: What is UMTS and why does it use WCDMA?

The third generation of mobile networks, also referred to as 3G, is primarily enabled by two cellular technologies: UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and CDMA2000 (Code Division Multiple Access Year 2000). UMTS is the 3G migration path used by the most widely deployed second-generation (2G) technology, GSM. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) is a third-generation …

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LTE vs LTE Advanced: Is 4G LTE different from LTE Advanced?

LTE or Long Term Evolution is the most widely deployed and adopted cellular technology today. LTE represents the fourth generation of mobile networks, and LTE Advanced is one of the key enhancements added to LTE to improve the data rates considerably. LTE or 4G LTE is the fourth generation of mobile networks that uses the …

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2G GSM: What is a GSM network and how does GSM work?

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications, and it is one of the most widely deployed second-generation (2G) cellular technologies globally. GSM was initially introduced in 1991 in Europe before it made its way to the rest of the world. GSM or Global System for Mobile Communications is a second-generation (2G) digital technology standard …

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What do the terms 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G really mean?

Mobile networks have matured over the last two decades from a data speed perspective, but they continue to evolve to enable many new use cases for people and IoT (Internet of Things) devices. Today, the 4G and 5G use the same technologies worldwide; however, it wasn’t the case before the fourth generation of mobile networks. …

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GSM vs CDMA: Difference between GSM and CDMA mobile networks

Mobile networks have used several cellular technologies worldwide for their evolution from 1G through to 5G. During the 2G and 3G eras, two distinct tracks were created for the future development of mobile networks. These tracks, GSM and CDMA, continued to progress separately until 4G LTE was introduced to streamline the future growth of mobile …

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Long Term Evolution: What is 4G LTE and how does it work?

LTE stands for Long Term Evolution, and it is a cellular technology that enables the fourth generation of mobile networks. Fourth-generation mobile networks, also known as 4G, are currently the most widely deployed mobile networks today. While the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G) has already been introduced, it hasn’t yet achieved the same penetration …

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What are digital and analog mobile networks?

As a mobile phone user, you may occasionally come across situations where you, for whatever reason, need to know the difference between digital and analogue (or analog) mobile networks. This situation can be a more frequent occurrence if you are an electrical, electronics, or telecommunications engineering student. While you may find tens if not hundreds …

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Circuit-Switching and Packet-Switching in mobile networks

Circuit-switching and packet-switching techniques have been part of the telecommunication industry for a very long time. The concept of packet-switched telecom networks had been developed even before the first generation (1G) of mobile networks was introduced. However, mobile networks started with circuit-switched techniques in the early 1990s and gradually moved towards packet-switching. Circuit-Switching is used …

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How are AMPS and D-AMPS different from GSM and CDMA?

AMPS and D-AMPS are cellular technologies that existed during the first and second generations of mobile networks. While second-generation (2G) cellular technologies still exist today, both AMPS and D-AMPS are now obsolete and have been replaced by GSM and CDMA mobile networks. AMPS was a first-generation (1G) cellular technology, and D-AMPS was a second-generation (2G) …

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