EVDO or Evolution-Data Optimized was introduced in the CDMA2000 networks to provide high-speed mobile data. Another standard, EV-DV or Evolution Data and Voice, was introduced in CDMA networks to provide integrated voice and data. LTE is the 4G migration path for all 3G mobile networks, including CDMA2000 and UMTS. HSPA is a similar technology to EVDO but it belongs to the UMTS networks.
EVDO (Evolution-Data Optimized) is a 3G enhancement introduced in CDMA2000 networks to provide high-speed mobile data. HSPA (High-Speed Packet Access) is a 3G enhancement for WCDMA-based UMTS networks. LTE is the 4G migration path for all 3G technologies, including CDMA2000 and UMTS.
The acronym, EVDO, originally stood for Evolution Data Only, suggesting that EVDO only enables data and not traditional voice. The voice service can be facilitated by the Voice over IP (VoIP) technology or a cdma2000 1 x fallback. The latter is the more common approach used by CDMA-based mobile operators.
EVDO belongs to CDMA2000 and HSPA belongs to UMTS
EVDO or Evolution-Data Optimized is specified by 3GPP2 in S.R0023 as High-Speed Data Enhancements for cdma2000 – 1 x Data Only (1 x EV-DO). HSPA or High-Speed Packet Access is specified in 3GPP releases 5 and 6, and it is a combination of two different standards High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA).
EVDO provides high-speed data capability to IS2000 networks. IS2000, commonly known as CDMA2000, is the 3G technology that allows IS-95 A and B (cdmaOne) to migrate to 3G. The “1 x” prefix means that only one 1.25 MHz frequency carrier is being used. EVDO can support multiple frequency carriers, and it is possible to have up to three (3 x ) or more carriers.
HSPA is the high-speed data service for Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) networks that use Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) technology to achieve 3G. UMTS is the 3G migration path for the most widely deployed second-generation technology, GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications).
LTE is the common migration path for both CDMA2000 and UMTS
LTE or Long Term Evolution of mobile networks provides the 4G migration path to all leading 3G technologies, including CDMA2000 and UMTS. As EVDO belongs to 3G CDMA2000 and HSPA belongs to UMTS networks, the LTE technology is the next evolutionary step for EVDO and HSPA.
The network evolution for UMTS and CDMA2000 has followed two separate tracks managed by 3GPP and 3GPP2. 3GPP specified the requirements for WCDMA-based UMTS networks to introduce HSDPA, HSUPA and Evolved HSPA (HSPA+). 3GPP2 established the requirements for CDMA2000 networks to introduce EV-DO (Rev 0, A, B and C) and EV-DV enhancements.
Both UMTS and CDMA2000 can work with the LTE technology to provide 4G speeds to their customers. LTE requirements are specified by 3GPP, and it streamlines the mobile network evolution by also allowing 3GPP2-led CDMA2000 to use LTE for 4G.
What download and upload speeds do you get with EVDO?
EVDO can provide peak download speeds of up to 14.7 Mbps and peak upload speeds of up to 5.4 Mbps with its Revision B (Rev. B). In addition, EVDO Revision A (Rev. A) can offer peak download data rates of up to 3.1 Mbps and peak upload data rates of up to 1.8 Mbps.
The first version of EVDO (Rev. 0) provides peak download speeds of up to 2.4 Mbps and peak upload speeds of up to 153 kbps. Rev. B offers further enhancements by providing a multi-carrier capability in which a cell phone or data card can communicate with multiple carriers at the same time.
By doing this, Rev. B effectively increases the data rate by two or more times. Release B, with two carriers (2 x), can increase the download speeds to 6.2 Mbps, which can go as high as 9.3 Mbps with three carriers (3 x).
From a speed viewpoint, HSDPA can enable peak download speeds of up to 14.4 Mbps, and HSUPA can allow peak upload speeds of up to 5.76 Mbps. HSPA+, an enhancement to HSPA, can offer even higher data rates, with up to 42 Mbps for the downloads and 11.5 Mbps for the uploads.
How does EVDO work?
EVDO services are available from mobile network operators or other telecom or internet providers. As a customer, you can access EVDO through your mobile phone or a data card (mobile broadband router, e.g. Mi-Fi device). When using EVDO through a data card, depending on the device manufacturer, you may need to install software from the service provider to connect to the internet.
EVDO is a network choice that allows mobile operators to offer data-only services that can co-exist with their voice services. The voice part can either be delivered as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) or on a separate fallback carrier dedicated to voice-only, i.e. CDMA2000 1 x carrier.
EVDO does not provide integrated voice and only focuses on offering high-speed data. Most CDMA mobile operators often adopt the cdma2000 1 x fallback option to ensure voice service quality.
How is EVDO related to EV-DV and CDMA2000?
cdma2000 is the underlying 3G technology that offers voice and data whereas EVDO and EV-DV are enhancements that deliver high-speed mobile data in cdma2000 networks. cdma2000 benefits from the EVDO enhancement for a data-only solution and EV-DV for an integrated voice and data solution.
cdma2000 provides a 3G upgrade path to cdmaOne (Interim Standard 1995 or IS-95) and Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System or D-AMPS (Interim Standard 136 or IS-136). EVDO is a packet-switched cellular data technology used in cdma2000 networks.
The EVDO requirements are based on reliability and spectral efficiency to enable up to 2.45 Mbps in the initial release for the forward link (downlink) which is responsible for downloads. The uplink or reverse link for EVDO delivers the same 153.6 kbps that cdma2000 1x offers.
EVDO is specified by Interim Standard 856 or IS-856, which sets requirements for High Rate Packet Data (HRPD). It is based on the principles of high throughput, increased security, low energy consumption and low cost. The IS-856 requirement focuses on data rate, radio environment, interoperability and authentication support.
The EVDO specification is documented in the 3GPP2 S.R0023 document that focuses on High-Speed Data Enhancement for cdma2000 1x DO. The other inter-related standard 1x EV-DV (Evolution Data and Voice) that provides integrated voice and data is documented in 3GPP2 S.R0026.
EV-DV is an extension of cdma2000 1x that provides the voice service alongside high-speed data where data rates can reach higher levels than those with EVDO. EVDO has been the popular data technology for cdma2000 networks whereas EVDV has been on a halt since 2005.
The requirement for the voice part for EV-DV is to meet or exceed the voice specifications for cdma2000 1x. It must support cdma2000 voice codecs and GSM full-rate and AMR voice codecs. EV-DV must also support Voice over IP (VoIP).
The data part in EV-DV must exceed the specifications for EVDO. The goal for EVDV is to double the spectral efficiency of voice services for cdma2000 1x. EVDV can enable up to 3.1 Mbps in the downlink and 1.8 Mbps in the uplink with 1x.
Here are some helpful downloads
Thank you for reading this post. I hope it helped you in developing a better understanding of cellular networks. Sometimes, we need extra support, especially when preparing for a new job, studying a new topic, or buying a new phone. Whatever you are trying to do, here are some downloads that can help you:
Students & fresh graduates: If you are just starting, the complexity of the cellular industry can be a bit overwhelming. But don’t worry, I have created this FREE ebook so you can familiarise yourself with the basics like 3G, 4G etc. As a next step, check out the latest edition of the same ebook with more details on 4G & 5G networks with diagrams. You can then read Mobile Networks Made Easy, which explains the network nodes, e.g., BTS, MSC, GGSN etc.
Professionals: If you are an experienced professional but new to mobile communications, it may seem hard to compete with someone who has a decade of experience in the cellular industry. But not everyone who works in this industry is always up to date on the bigger picture and the challenges considering how quickly the industry evolves. The bigger picture comes from experience, which is why I’ve carefully put together a few slides to get you started in no time. So if you work in sales, marketing, product, project or any other area of business where you need a high-level view, Introduction to Mobile Communications can give you a quick start. Also, here are some templates to help you prepare your own slides on the product overview and product roadmap.