If you study mobile communications in an academic or professional capacity, you will surely come across terms like radio network, RNC, RAN, NodeB, eNodeB, base station, mast etc. Looking at mobile networks at a very high level, we can conceptually break them down into at least four areas i.e. user device (e.g. smartphone), radio access network, core network, and other external networks (e.g. internet). While the radio access network may seem like only one of the network entities, it is arguably the most crucial one. In very simple terms, a radio access network is the entry point for your smartphone or other mobile devices to access the mobile network.
A radio access network, also known as a radio network is one of the key entities within a mobile cellular network. It uses radio waves to enable the transmission and reception of mobile signals between your device and the overall network. The radio network connects your device to other parts of the network including the mobile core network and external networks such as PSTN or the internet. Let’s have a look at a simplified diagram to visualise this concept.
The most visible part of the radio access network for the general public is the radio base station. These are the tall masts that we see quite frequently with cellular antennas and other communication links mounted on them. In 2G GSM and 3G UMTS networks, the radio networks can be seen as base stations installed nationwide that are connected to other network entities that control them. In 4G LTE as well as 5G, no separate controller entities are used because the base stations are capable of performing the controller functions on their own.
2G radio access networks
The BTS or Base Transceiver Stations can be seen as tall masts with cellular antennas mounted on them. BTS is responsible for managing all the radio communication between a mobile handset and the mobile network. The “coverage” or “signal” in a 2G GSM network is created by this key network entity.
BTS is controlled by another network entity called the Base Station Controller (BSC). Base Station Controller usually controls a number of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). BSC has the intelligence to manage mobile radio resources, and it controls tasks such as handover and frequency allocation. The BSC is situated between Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and BTS. If a BTS is facilitating a mobile call and the call quality starts to deteriorate due to decreasing signal strength, the BSC may intelligently assign the call to another BTS within its control with better signal strength. If the BSC cannot find a BTS with sufficient signal strength, then the MSC may assign the call to another BSC which in turn hands over the call to a BTS within its control to continue the call while ensuring appropriate service quality levels.
Both BTS and BSC are part of the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) in the GSM network, which then connects them to the mobile Core Network. It may be interesting to note that BSS is also short for another very important entity in mobile communications called Business Support Systems. More information on that in a separate article WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OSS AND BSS?
3G and 4G radio networks
Similar to BTS in GSM networks, Node B is the base station in UMTS (3G) networks. Node B communicates with the mobile handsets just like BTS does in a GSM network. Node B is controlled by another network entity known as Radio Network Controller (RNC). Both Node B and RNC are part of the UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN). As part of the UTRAN, RNC then connects the Node Bs to the mobile core network. Radio Network Controller has the responsibility to control a number of Node Bs. Radio resource management and mobility management are among the key tasks performed by an RNC. The RNC is situated between NodeB and the mobile core network. The RNC is connected to the circuit-switched MSC on the one hand and the packet-switched SGSN on the other hand. Have a look at the green boxes in the diagram below to visualise this concept.
The base station in LTE (4G) networks is called eNodeB which stands for evolved Node B and connects the mobile phones to the mobile network. In contrast to BTS and Node B, eNodeB has an additional role as the radio network controller in 4G LTE networks. In the GSM and UMTS networks, the radio control function is handled by separate controller entities BSC and the RNC respectively.
5G networks use a new technology called New Radio (NR) that employs specialised 5G base stations for the radio part. These NR compatible 5G base stations are called gNB. 5G also has other base stations that support LTE radio access.
Here are some helpful downloads
Thank you for reading this post, I hope it helped you in developing a better understanding of cellular networks. Sometimes, we need some extra support especially when preparing for a new job, or studying a new topic, or maybe just buying a new phone. Whatever you are trying to do, here are some downloads that can help you:
Students & fresh graduates: If you are just starting, the complexity of the cellular industry can be a bit overwhelming. But don’t worry, I have created this FREE ebook so you can familiarise yourself with the basics like 3G, 4G etc. As a next step, check out the latest edition of the same ebook with more details on 4G & 5G networks with diagrams. You can then read Mobile Networks Made Easy which explains the network nodes e.g. BTS, MSC, GGSN etc.
Professionals: If you are an experienced professional but new to mobile communications, it may seem hard to compete with someone who has a decade of experience in the cellular industry. But not everyone who works in this industry is always up to date on the bigger picture and the challenges considering how quickly the industry evolves. The bigger picture comes from experience which is why I’ve carefully put together a few slides to get you started in no time. So if work in sales, marketing, product, project or any other area of business where you need a high-level view, Introduction to Mobile Communications can give you a quick start. Also, here are some templates to help you prepare your own slides on product overview and product roadmap.